Budgeting Basics: Managing Your Money During the Lean Years

November 30, 2022

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Money will probably be tight during medical school and residency. That’s why a realistic spending plan (budget) – one you can stick to – will be critical to your financial well-being during this time.

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Benefits of Budgeting

The word “budget” may have negative connotations for some people; however, setting, reviewing and maintaining a budget can offer many benefits.

For example, you might be able to better control your spending by having a set budget. You might also be able to reach your financial goals faster because budgeting can give you the opportunity to set financial priorities. Budgeting can also help you be prepared for unexpected expenses and allow you to set up an emergency fund within your monthly plan. 

How to Set Up a Budget

The first step to budgeting requires that you know what your income (for a student, this is likely money from student loans) and expenses are each month. You will need to add up your income, determine your expenses, and calculate the difference to see if you have a surplus or deficit before you can actually create a budget. Some people have a hard time accurately determining what their expenses are each month, so they may need to take a month to track their expenses before formulating their working budget.

You can now track your expenses and create a budget directly from your phone by using the AAMC Financial Wellness program.

When creating your budget, it may help to categorize your expenses as either “fixed” (stay the same every month) or “variable” (fluctuate from month to month).

After you total your monthly expenses, and subtract that total from your income, you will then know what your “bottom line” is.  If you find that you don’t have enough money to cover your expenses, consider adjusting your variable expenses; this may be an area in which you can make up for some of your shortfalls. You can use the Budget Worksheet for Students or the Budget Worksheet for Residents to help you create your budget.

Examples of fixed expenses:
  • Rent
  • Auto loan payment
  • Health insurance premium
Examples of variable expenses:
  • Groceries
  • Clothing
  • Dining out
Cost-Savings Measures

If you find that you have “too much month at the end of the money,” there are things that you can do to reduce your spending. A few possibilities include:

  • Share housing costs with a roommate
  • Clip coupons to save money on groceries
  • Carpool or use public transportation
  • Buy clothes at end-of-season sales
  • Buy generic brands rather than name brands products
  • Buy non-perishable items in bulk
  • Take advantage of coupons you receive from department stores
  • Cut down on frequent dining out - pack your meals and make coffee at home
Special Considerations for Medical Students and Residents


Every medical school determines a total cost of attendance (COA) for their school. This is a figure that usually reflects most expenses as well as the maximum financial aid you can receive. The COA will be very helpful to you in formulating a budget. Request this information from your medical school’s Student Financial Aid Office if it is not reflected on your award letter.


If you’re currently in residency and would like to postpone payments on your student loans, you can do so through a mandatory forbearance.  You are eligible for this forbearance on your Direct Unsubsidized Loans, PLUS Loans, and Direct Consolidation Loans during residency. After residency, you will need to incorporate your student loan payments into your budget. See FIRST’s Postponing Loan Repayment During Residency and the Repayment Plans for Federal Student Loans fact sheets for more information.

More Savings Information

Review “Time is On Your Side a publication from the U.S. Department of Labor, Employee Benefits Security Administration that provides some tips on basic retirement information.

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AAMC Financial Wellness

Access free financial calculators, articles, and videos to help you create a budget, track your spending, create financial goals, and enhance your financial knowledge about credit, financial planning, money management, and more!

Visit AAMC Financial Wellness